Differentiation Part 3 – Recorders

In a few weeks my fifth graders will dust off their recorders and begin using them in music class again. Many of them loved playing recorders in fourth grade, but some of them struggled. We spend the bulk of our time on whole class recorder instruction, but I also offer recorder tutoring two mornings a week for anyone interested in attending, and post some folk songs for practice on our school website.

When students say they can’t read the notes fast enough to keep up with the class, how can I help them? I don’t want to add letter names to the songs we’re working on, because it feels like adding a band-aid to a bigger issue. Instead, I’ll share a few things that have helped some students.

Selective Labeling

In the past, I’ve experimented with adding letter names under tricky spots in the music. After students have the opportunity to study the music, finger and sing the parts, and play it once or twice, I tap the letter names on the SMART board and they fade out. Usually it is met with gasps and giggles, and a few, “Oh, no!” responses. But we jump right in and play it again while it’s fresh on their minds. The best way I’ve found to do this is only labeling a little, and if it’s more than one spot in the music, letting students play all the way through again before taking away another labeled part.

Did you know the first phrase of the song “Phoebe in Her Petticoat” spells BAGGAGE? It is fun for students to decipher the word BAGGAGE, and then they usually go home and practice that phrase over and over again.

Repeating Motives

Build up to the whole song slowly. Each time we approach a new song in class, we take a minute to study it. We look at the first note, last note, highest, and lowest. Then we look for measures or patterns that repeat and students highlight them on the SMART board.

As a class, students sing the letter names and finger them on the recorder in chin position before trying to play. Then we start at the beginning. Students only play the highlighted parts and I play the other measures. By beginning with the repeating parts, students are not responsible for playing the whole song, but they must follow the music independently and play an accessible section. By the same token, students who need an added challenge may be invited to finger the parts the teacher is playing, or peer tutor those who are struggling.

In the song “Big Fat Biscuit,” students who have just learned “low E” could play G E, G or ‘chew baloo’ in each phrase. Those who need a bigger challenge might be asked to aurally deduce the pitches and rhythms for the rest of the song.

In the song “Chatter with the Angels,” students highlight and play ‘chatter with the angels’ in each phrase, and the teacher plays the rest. This is a great way to practice G E,D, and getting the ‘low D’ to speak. The next step would be adding ‘soon in the morning,’ and then ‘in that land’ and ‘join that band.’

Simplify or Add Harmony 

Consider providing a simplified version of the song for a struggling player, or a counter-melody. In some instances, writing a counter-melody using only BAG with quarter notes and eighth notes would allow students to be part of the group even if they cannot play a melody with more pitches. If both parts are posted on the screen like a duet, I’ve found that most students will choose appropriately.

Solo and Small Group Opportunities

If some of your students are recorder masters, it’s a good idea to let them play independently or in small groups occasionally. Some of them may even come to recorder tutoring to help other students. You’ll never know if you don’t invite them!

How do you help your struggling recorder students?

Differentiation part 2

Several years ago I wrote a post titled Differentiation in the Elementary Music Classroom. It was one of my first experiences providing leveled worksheets for my students that would be appropriate for their varying levels. Today’s post takes this a step further.

Each time my students complete a worksheet in class, a few students finish before the others. Rather than let them goof off, I try to provide a flashcard match or simple game they can work on independently while I help other students. This idea blossomed into a new differentiation technique. Why not create leveled packets? Students can work at their own pace and each level is slightly more challenging than the last.

Getting Started

Let’s use half note practice as an example. This scenario assumes that students know quarter notes, paired eighth notes, quarter rests, and half notes. Using known song material, all students would start with a 16-beat song with laminated flashcards cut into 4-beat phrases. Students put them in order to match the song and check their work. I highly recommend creating color-coded packets. Post the song order or color codes students should follow.

Checking Their Work

There’s only one of you and many more of them, so you may consider preparing manila folders with “answer sheets” inside. After they put the flashcards in order, they may check their own answers or have a friend check for them. If any flashcards are out of order, students should choose another packet in the same color/level. In this way, they only move up a level when they’ve mastered the previous level.

Creating Levels

A few 16-beat songs appropriate for Level 1 include I See the Moon, Sea Shell, and Let Us Chase the Squirrel. You might choose to cut these into 4-beat phrases or create another level by cutting one song into 2-beat phrases.

Level 2 may include Yellow Bird and Who’s That Tapping at the Window. Both of these can be written out completely, or you could include the repeat signs for an added challenge! These songs can be cut into 2-beat phrases or 4-beat phrases.

Level 3 might include Here Comes a Bluebird and Are You Sleeping since they are 32-beat songs. These songs can also be cut into 2-beat phrases or 4-beat phrases.

Just be sure to use songs that your students know very well. 

Hint: Be sure to cut the flashcards about the same size so students don’t try to “piece” them together like a puzzle. Cut after the bar lines and make each phrase the same number of beats.

Yellow Bird rhythms without the repeat sign

Yellow Bird rhythms without the repeat sign

Yellow Bird rhythms with the repeat sign.

Yellow Bird rhythms with the repeat sign.

Effective Stations in Kindergarten

Everyone talks about setting up stations in elementary music classes, but some of the materials I’ve perused don’t seem to further a Kodály curriculum. Since I basically see my students once a week for 50 minutes, I have to be choosy about how we spend our class time. That brings us to the topic of this post – Kindergarten stations.

My kindergarten classes can keep a steady beat and we’re beginning to prepare long and short, or “the way the words go.” This is a tricky time, because they must learn to differentiate between beat and rhythm. Just like any melodic or rhythmic concept in upper grades, kindergarten students must demonstrate prior knowledge before working on kinesthetic, aural, or visual preparation of a new element. This week we practiced beat using beat stations. Each station incorporated a known beat activity.

My four stations included: beat charts, toy hammers, hand drums, and cardboard guitars. I placed the supplies for each station inside a hula-hoop and assigned students to a station. The groups picked up their supplies, I named a song, gave the cue “one, two, ready sing,” and the class performed the beat while singing the selection. Next, I called out the hula-hoop station colors and asked them to point to their next station. They transitioned, performed a different sixteen-beat song, and moved through all four stations practicing beat. On average, this activity took fewer than five minutes for all four stations and the students loved it! Here’s a quick shot of one of my classes enjoying their stations.

Do you have an idea for a fun beat station? kinder_stations_hughey2016